There are occasions when a HV bus is supplied from a delta connected source (i.e. there is no earth reference). A zig-zag earthing transformer can be used to provide the earth reference and to limit the earth fault current.
There can be a requirement for electrical and mechanical interlocking of the various incoming circuit breakers with the circuit breaker for the earthing transformer. This is especially important for generator applications.
Earth fault detection can be considered for delta connected generators when running off-line. It is recommended that a risk assessment should be undertaken to determine whether or not the risk is
Over the years the battery systems have developed from NiCad to maintenance free, valve regulated, lead acid batteries. These have seen wide application in control systems.
Magellan Power has been pioneering the use of Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries for industrial applications.
Some of the reasons why you may want to consider Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries for
your next substation application are:
· Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries can work at up to 70C
· For equivalent lead acid batteries, they are a third of the weight and half the size
· Lithium batteries have more charge cycles than lead acid, up to 4000 for a 200 AHr battery
· They have a high efficiency charge / discharge rate, low self-discharge and long shelf life
Fraccing is used in CSG (coal seam gas) to enable methane gas flow from the coal seam to the well.
There is an informative article on You Tube by Australia Pacific LNG which you can watch here.
What is not mentioned is that each well requires electric power for operation. The distribution network for the well field is substantial.